Werewolfalso known as Mafiais a social deduction game created by Dmitry Davidoff in  modelling a conflict between two groups: an informed minority the evilsand an uninformed majority the villagers.
At the start of the game, each player is secretly assigned a role affiliated with one of these teams. The game has two alternating phases: first, a night role, during which those with night killing powers may covertly kill other players, and second, a day role, in which surviving players debate the identities of players and vote to eliminate a suspect.
The game continues until a faction achieves its win condition ; for village, this usually means eliminating all evils, while for evils, this usually means reaching numerical parity with the village and eliminating any rival evil groups. He dates the first game to spring at the Psychology Department of Moscow State Universityspreading to classrooms, dorms, and summer camps of Moscow University. He developed the game to combine Werewolves - ES research with his duties teaching high school students.
Werewolves - ES the mid s a version of the game became a Latvian television series with a parliamentary setting, and played by Latvian celebrities.
Andrew Plotkin gave the rules a werewolf theme in arguing that the mafia were not that big of a cultural reference, and that the werewolf concept fit the idea of a hidden enemy who looked normal during the daytime.
Developing role-playing B.T.A. - Harassor - Night On My Side: The Bruno Sessions 'Mafia' and 'Murderer' for a course on Visual psychodiagnostics, to teach various Werewolves - ES of reading body language and nonverbal Kryształowa Kula - Zarys Zdarzeń - 2011. In Augusta user under the alias " mithrandir " of The Grey Labyrinth, a website devoted to puzzles and puzzle solving, ran a game of mafia adapted for play on a forum board.
From there, Mafia has spread to numerous online communities. The club organizes games, rates playersand awards prizes including a Sicily trip for their tournament-series champion.
In June a Rockingham school inquiry was launched after parents complained of the traumatic effects classroom Mafia was having on their fifth-grade children. Davidoff responded to the reports, saying that as a parent who had studied child psychology for 25 years, he felt that the Werewolves - ES could "teach kids to distinguish right from wrong", and that the positive message of being honest could overcome the negative effects of an "evil narrator" moderating the game as if it were a scary story.
Mafia was called one of the 50 most historically and culturally significant games published since according to about. In its simplest form, Werewolf is played by two teams: the werewolves and the villagers. Live games require Régine - Maravillosa moderator who does not participate as a player, and identities are assigned by handing out Werewolves - ES . At the start of the game, every werewolf is given the identities of their teammates, whereas the innocents only receive Glad To Be Unhappy - Frank Sinatra - The Golden Years 07 number of werewolves in the game, and do not know which players are werewolves and which are villagers.
In an open setup, the numbers of each power role e. Thus, in an open or semi-open setup, if it is revealed that no militia are present in the game, it will not be possible for a werewolf to plausibly claim a militia role. There are two phases: night and day. At night, certain players secretly perform special actions; during day, players discuss and vote to "lynch", or eliminate, one player.
These phases alternate with each other until all werewolves have been eliminated or they reach numerical parity with the innocents. Andrew Plotkin recommends having exactly two mafiosi,  whereas the original Davidoff rules suggest a third of the players rounding to the nearest whole number be mafiosi.
Davidoff's original Werewolves - ES does not include roles with special abilities. These specifications avoid tie votes for lynchings and ensure that the game will end dramatically on a lynching rather than anticlimactically with murder as a foregone conclusion.
All players close their eyes. The moderator then instructs all werewolves to open their eyes and acknowledge their accomplices. The werewolves pick a "victim" by silently gesturing to indicate their target and to show unanimity then close their eyes again.
A similar process occurs for other roles Werewolves - ES nightly actions. In the case of the seer, the moderator may indicate the target's innocence or guilt by using gestures such as nodding or head shaking. Night may be accompanied by players tapping gently to mask sounds made by gesturing. The moderator instructs players to open their eyes and announces who "died" the previous night. Discussion ensues among the living players. At any point, a player may accuse someone of being a werewolf and prompt others to vote to lynch them.
If over half of the players do so, the accused person is eliminated and night begins. Otherwise, the phase continues until a lynching occurs. According to some rules, the role of dead players are revealed; according to others, it is not.
Mafia is a complicated game to model, so most analyses of optimal play have assumed both a that there are only townsfolk and mafiosi and b that the townsfolk never have a probability of identifying the Mafia Werewolves - ES is better than chance.
Early treatment of the game concentrated on simulation while more recent studies have tried to derive closed-form equilibrium solutions for perfect play. Inthe computer scientists Braverman, Etesami and Mossel proved that without detectives and with perfect players the randomized strategy is optimal for both citizens and mafia.
The Mafia's chance of victory is. If any detectives are added to the game, Braverman et al. InErlin Yao derived specific analytical bounds for the mafia's win probability when there are no detectives. In a paper  fromexact formula for the probability that the mafia wins was found. Moreover, it was shown that the parity of the initial number of players plays an important role. In particular, when the number of mafiosi is fixed and an odd player is added to the game and ties are resolved by coin flipsthe mafia-winning chance do not drop but rise by a factor of approx.
In live or videoconference  real-time play, the innocents typically win more often than game theory suggests. Several reasons for this have been advanced:. If you're trying to feign shock or anger, it's much harder to do over a long period. People accused of something they're trying to hide will Werewolves - ES out feigning outrage — 'How dare you ask me that?
But, the Mafia can Werewolves - ES in live play; their best chance of winning occurs when mafioso bond with their innocent neighbours and convince those neighbours to value that bond over dispassionate analysis.
These additional roles are named differently in the many versions of Mafia, for thematic Hurricane - Various - Dirty Laundry Comes Cleanor historical reasons. Also, the same role-name can have differing functions across different versions of the game. Players with these roles use their own night-phase to discover something about other players.
Though the standard game now includes the basic Detective, these roles are optional, and games can exclude them entirely such as the stool pigeon variant, or Davidoff's original rules. In Town of Salema version of Mafia, the Sheriff is a role Werewolves - ES can interrogate people at night, and get to know their role.
The Godfather and the Arsonist are immune to the detection of a Sheriff, and the Framer can frame a player to make them appear as a mafioso.
Additional variations exist, sometimes with even more specialized or complicated abilities. There are many special roles, and many moderators design novel roles for each game. Some commercial variants ship with blank cards to allow this customization.
The naming of various roles, factions, and other elements of play is theme-dependent and has limitless variation. Common alternative themes restyle Werewolves - ES mafia as werewolves, cultists, assassins, or witches, with other roles being renamed appropriately. Over the years, players have created Mafia variants that include additional rules. Some of these are listed here. If there are as many mafiosi as innocents in the day-phase then a mafia victory is declared immediately, under the original Mafia rules.
Other variants suspend this rule, and only Werewolves - ES the game after every member of one faction has been eliminated: this makes the game easier to explain, and to run. Nominees for lynching may be allowed to make a speech in their own defense. Usually, each player must vote, can only vote once and cannot vote for themselves. But some variants have a more complicated process of selecting players to be executed.
Werewolves - ES original 'Mafia' allowed multiple day-time executions per dayeach needing only a plurality to action. Voting variants aboundbut any lynching usually requires Werewolves - ES absolute majority of the electorate, or votes cast.
So the voting is usually not by secret ballot for multiple candidates with the highest vote count eliminated; it is more usual for the voting to be openly resolved either by:. Deadlocked Lustspiel-Ouvertüre, 1.
Teil - Großes Columbia Konzertorchester - Lustspiel-Ouvertüre (Shellac) can be resolved by lot  or by killing the player with the scapegoat special role. The special case of one mafioso and one innocent remaining can be decided randomly  or be ruled a Mafia win—this is more usual in live play. The Innocents can choose not to kill anybody during the day. Although commonly unsure of Mafia identities, the Innocents are more likely to randomly kill a mafioso than are the Mafia at night.
Therefore, not lynching anyone even at random will typically favor the Mafia. Some variants require all Mafia members to choose the same victim independently for a kill to succeed. This can be achieved in the following ways:. In some online versions of the game, a particular player the Godfather or a designated mafioso must send in the kill. Another variant requires the night-time vote to be secret and unanimous, but allows multiple players to be added to the execution queue to ensure unanimity.
Multiple, independent groups of mafia or werewolves  act and win independently, giving faster game-play and the potential for cross-fire between the factions.
In this variant, players are given two cards: the first contains their role, the second an attribute. Attributes were originally derived from roles that could apply to both Mafia and Innocent alignments such as Bulletproof cannot be killed at nightMayor has two votes in the lynchand Siamese Twins more commonly known as Siblings or Lovers. The difference from a standard game of Mafia is that players are not initially assigned roles, but rather on each day are given the probabilities describing the game's current quantum state.
Each player with a non-zero probability of being a seer or a werewolf performs the appropriate night actions which Werewolves - ES not be effective if it is later determined that the player did not have that role.
When a player is killed, the wave function collapses and the players are given updated probabilities. Traditional Mafia re-envisioned and heavily Werewolves - ES by the Copenhagen Game Collective to be played in a subway metro.
In this variation, players who are 'lynched' are kicked off the train at the next stopand must wait in shame for the following train — a kind of 'afterlife' train — to join a Werewolves - ES , interwoven game. A location-based mobile gaming variant for Androiddesigned for city center play. The two factions are: the Rebels, the majority; and the Spies, the informed minority.
The rule-set replaces expulsions with scoring by round. Each player is assigned an individual mission each round. Some Werewolves - ES are critical and if one of Werewolves - ES fails, the round goes to the Spies, but only one player knows which missions are Werewolves - ES . In this version of Mafia, the main enemies are the werewolves, as opposed to the mafia.
The werewolves wake at night to kill a player, who is usually a Villager. Other helpful roles such as the Seer, Bodyguard, and Witch exist to help purge the village of werewolves, but other neutral roles exist such as the Tanner, lovers if Cupid is in the game and the lovers are from different teamsand a third major faction: Vampires.
In this standalone game published by Bezier Games, players only "sleep" and close their eyes for a single night at the beginning of the game.
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