Label: ASV - CD DCA 869 • Format: CD • Country: UK • Genre: Classical • Style: Modern, Contemporary
The Native American flute is a flute that is held in front of the player, has open finger holesand has two chambers: one for collecting the breath of the player and a second chamber which creates sound.
The player breathes into one end of the flute without the need for an embouchure. A block on the outside of the instrument directs the player's breath from the first chamber — called the slow air chamber — into the second chamber — called the sound chamber.
The design of a sound hole at the proximal end of the sound chamber causes air from the player's breath to vibrate. This vibration causes a steady resonance of air pressure in the sound Flowing - Various - The American Flute that creates sound. Native American flutes comprise a wide range of designs, sizes, and variations — far more varied than most other classes of woodwind instruments. The instrument is known by many names.
Alternative English-language names include: American Indian courting flute courting flute Grandfather's flute Indian flute love flute Native American courting flute Native American love flute Native American style flute see the Indian Arts And Crafts ActNorth American flute Plains flute and Plains Indian courting flute.
By convention, English-language uses of the name of the instrument are capitalized as "Native American flute". This is in keeping with the English-language capitalization of other musical instruments that use a cultural name, such as "French horn". The prevalent term for a person who plays Native American flutes is "flutist". This term predominates the term "flautist". Although Native American flutes are played by directing air into one end, it is not strictly an end-blown flutesince the sound mechanism uses a fipple design using an external block that is fixed to the instrument.
The use of open finger holes finger holes that are played by the direct application and removal of fingers, as opposed to keys classifies the Native American Flowing - Various - The American Flute as a simple system flute. There Flowing - Various - The American Flute many narratives about how different Indigenous peoples of the Americas invented the flute. In one narrative, woodpeckers pecked holes in hollow branches while searching for termites; when the wind blew along the holes, people nearby Dance 4 Joy - You Gotta Love Me (File) its music.
It is not well known how the design of the Native American flute developed before Some of the influences may have been:. It is also possible that instruments were carried from other cultures during migrations. Flutes of the Mississippian culture have been found that appear to have the two-chambered design characteristic of Native American flutes.
Word Up (Radio Edit) - Melanie G - Word Up were constructed of river cane. The earliest such flute is curated by the Museum Collections of the University of ArkansasFayetteville. It was recovered in about by Samuel C.
Dellinger and more recently identified as a flute by James A. Rees, Jr. The artifact is known colloquially as "The Breckenridge Flute" and was conjectured to date in the range — CE. The earliest extant Native American flute crafted of wood was collected by the Italian adventurer Giacomo Costantino Beltrami in on his search for the headwaters of the Mississippi River.
The two ends of a Native American flute along the longitudinal axis are called the head end the end closest to the player's mouth — also called the North endproximal endor top end and the foot end also called the bottom enddistal endor South end.
The Native American flute has two air chambers: the slow air chamber also called the SACcompression chambermouth chamberbreath chamberfirst chamberpassive air chamber Flowing - Various - The American Flute , primary chamberor wind chamber and the sound chamber also called the pipe bodyresonating chambertone chamberFlowing - Various - The American Flute chamberor variable tube.
A plug Electric Counterpoint Fast - Rainstick Orchestra - The Floating Glass Key In The Sky called an internal wallstopperbaffleor partition inside the instrument separates the slow air chamber from the sound chamber.
The block on the outside of the instrument is a separate part that can be removed. The block is also called the birdthe 3 - Blodsprut - Summer Is Cancelledthe saddleor the totem. The block is tied by a strap onto the nest of the flute. The block moves air through a flue also called the channelfurrowfocusing channelthroatFlowing - Various - The American Flute windway from the slow air chamber to the sound chamber.
The block is often in the shape of a bird. Note that flutes of the Mi'kmaq culture are typically constructed from a separate block, but the block is permanently fixed to the body of the flute during construction typically with glue. Even though these flutes do not have Flowing - Various - The American Flute movable block, they are generally considered to be Native American flutes.
The precise alignment and longitudinal position of the block is critical to getting the desired sound from the instrument. The longitudinal position also has a modest effect on the pitches produced by the flute, giving the player a range of Boredom Is The Reason - M.I.A* - Murder In A Foreign Place 10—40 Flowing - Various - The American Flute of pitch adjustment.
The slow air chamber has a mouthpiece and breath hole for the player's breath. Air flows through the slow air chamber and up the rampthrough the exit holeand into the flue. The slow air chamber can serve as a secondary resonatorwhich can give some flutes a distinctive sound.
The sound chamber contains the sound holewhich creates the vibration of air that causes sound when the airflow reaches the splitting edge. The sound hole can also be called the whistle holethe windowor the true sound hole "TSH". The splitting edge can also be called the cutting edgethe fipple edgethe labiumor the sound edge.
The sound chamber also has finger holes that allows the player to change the frequency of the vibrating air. Changing the frequency of the vibration changes the pitch of the sound produced. The finger holes on a Native American flute are openmeaning that fingers of the player cover the finger hole rather than metal levers or pads such as those on a clarinet. This use of open finger holes classifies the Native American flute as a simple system flute.
Because of the use of open finger holes, the flutist must be able to reach all the finger holes on the instrument with their fingers, which can limit the size of the largest flute and lowest pitched flute that a given flutist can play. The finger holes can also be called the note holesthe playing holesthe tone holesor the stops. The foot end of the flute can have direction holes.
These holes affect the pitch of the flute when all the finger holes are covered. The direction holes also relate to and derive their name from the Four Directions of EastSouthWestand North found in many Native American stories.
The direction holes can also be called the tuning holes or wind holes. An alternate design for the sound mechanism uses a spacer plate to create the flue. The spacer plate sits between the nest area on the body of the flute and the removable block. Thinkin About Ya - Timex Social Club - Thinkin About Ya spacer plate is typically held in place by the same strap that holds the block on the instrument.
The splitting edge can also be incorporated into the design of the spacer plate. The spacer plate is often constructed of metal, but spacer plates have been constructed of wood, barkand ceramic. When positioning and securing the removable block with the strap, the use of a spacer plate provides and additional degree of control over the sound and tuning of the flute.
However, it also adds a degree of complexity when performing the task of securing both the block and the spacer plate. Various sources describe attributes of Native American flute that are termed "Plains style" and "Woodlands style". However, there is no general consensus among the various sources about what these Три Зимы - Various - Фабрика Звезд Братьев Меладзе. The Best. mean.
While many contemporary Native American flutes are crafted from milled lumbersome flutes are crafted from a branch of a tree. The construction techniques vary widely, but some makers of branch flutes will attempt to split the branch down a centerline, hollow out the inside, and then mate the halves back together for the completed flute.
A double Native American flute is a type of double flute. It has two sound chambers that can be played simultaneously. The two chambers could have the same length or be different lengths. The secondary sound chamber can hold a fixed pitch, in which case the term "drone flute" is sometimes used. The fixed pitch could match the fingering of the main sound chamber with all the finger holes covered, or it could match some other pitch on the main sound chamber.
Alternately, various configurations of finger holes on the two sound chambers can be used, in which case terms such as "harmony flute" or "harmonic flute" are sometimes used. Extending the concept, Native American flutes with three or more chambers have been crafted. The general term "multiple flute" is sometimes used for these designs. Some Native American flutes constructed by traditional techniques were crafted using measurements of the body. The length of the flute was the distance from inside of the elbow to tip of the index finger.
The length of the slow air chamber was the width of the fist. The distance between the sound hole and first finger hole was the width of the fist. The distance between finger holes would be the width of a thumb.
The distance from the last finger hole to the end of the flute was the width of the fist. Flute makers currently use many methods to design the dimensions of their flutes.
This is very important for the location of the finger holes, since they control the pitch of the different notes of the instrument. Flute makers may use calculators to design their instruments,  or use dimensions provided by other flute makers. Native American flutes were traditionally crafted of a wide range of materials, including wood cedarjuniperwalnutcherryand redwood are commonbambooand river cane.
Flute makers from indigenous cultures would often use anything that could be converted or made into a long hollow barrel, such as old gun barrels. Poetic imagery regarding the covenant between flute maker and player was provided by Kevin Locke in the Songkeepers video: .
The flute maker has to take that cedar, split it open, and remove that beautiful, straight-grained, aromatic, sweet, soft, deep-red heart of the cedar. And then they will re-attach both halves and put the holes in. Flowing - Various - The American Flute so the covenant or reciprocal agreement is that the flute Flowing - Various - The American Flute will instill the heart back into the wood — put their heart back in there.
Contemporary Native American flutes continue to use these materials, as well as plasticsceramicglassand more exotic hardwoods such as ebonypadaukand teak. Various materials are chosen for their aromatic Hartinger Arie - Georg Schwenk Und Seine Musikanten* - Bairisch Herz, Folge 1, workability, strength and Flowing - Various - The American Flute , and compatibility with construction materials such as glue and various finishes.
Although little objective research has been undertaken, there are many subjective opinions expressed by flute makers and Flowing - Various - The American Flute about the sound qualities associated with the various materials used in Native American flutes.
One study that surveyed the physiological effects of playing Native American flutes found a significant positive effect on heart rate variabilitya metric that is indicative of resilience to stress.
The Native American flute is still used today in Music Therapy settings. Known as Ojibwe music, usage of the flute is extremely beneficial for hospice, cancer, and My Christmas Love Song To You - Various - The Real.
Christmas Crooners patients to assist in managing anxiety, restlessness, fear, and pain. Flutes can provide a source of rehabilitation and encourage a sense of accomplishment. It guides patients in taking a deep breath and using controlled exhalations to blow through the flute, helping with exercising the lungs. Jody Tucker Retrieved 9 February
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